Linux is an open-source operating system developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds for personal computers (PCs). It is a Unix-like operating system based on the Linux kernel, a free and open-source software. Linux is widely used in servers, embedded devices, cloud computing, and mobile devices.

The Linux kernel is a monolithic kernel that handles system resources and controls operations on computer hardware. This kernel is one of the most prominent examples of free software, and it is widely used for a variety of different tasks, such as web servers, application hosting, gaming, security, networking, and desktop computing. A wide variety of Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, Red Hat Linux, CentOS, Gentoo and openSUSE, are available for download or purchase. Each distribution includes its own set of applications and desktop environments, allowing users to customize their experience with Linux.

In addition to the kernel, Linux distributions often include additional software components such as the GNU C Library, the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) for compiling software, a graphical user interface (GUI), and system-wide shared libraries. The most commonly used GUIs are KDE, GNOME, Xfce, LXDE, and MATE, although there are many other options available. Python, Perl, PHP, and Ruby are commonly used scripting languages, while security tools such as Firewall Builder, AppArmor, and SELinux are available for added protection.

Linux is widely adopted by many users, organizations, and commercial enterprises, due to its flexibility, scalability, affordability, and power. It is often used as a platform for hosting web applications and services, and for cloud-based applications. Additionally, Linux is popular among developers due to its open source availability and its support for multiple programming languages.

Although Linux has not achieved the same level of popularity as Windows or macOS, it has gained a foothold in the PC market, especially in services such as servers, enterprise, and cloud computing. The Linux operating system is an ideal choice for those looking for a dependable, secure, and cost-effective computing solution.

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