AC (Alternating Current) is an electrical current in which the direction of flow of electrons reverses periodically. This current forms the basis of all electrical power networks and electrical equipment used in everyday life.

The alternating current is different from a direct current, or DC, which is generated by devices such as batteries and solar cells, and flows in one direction only. Machines that use AC motors may be plugged into the mains AC supply or may be powered by dedicated rectifiers.

The most common form of AC generators is the synchronous revolving armature generator, in which a magnetic field passes through a stationary set of windings, or stator, while a constant rotating armature with windings is placed in the middle. This rotating armature induces a voltage in the stationary windings due to electromagnetic induction.

The AC voltage can easily be varied by using different types of transformers. Also known as a buck-boost transformer, a step-up transformer increases the voltage of AC from its input to its output. A step-down transformer reduces the voltage of AC from its input to its output. Other types of transformers, such as isolation transformers, autotransformers, and variable autotransformers, are also used to vary the AC voltage.

The AC power that is generated by transformers is sent to the household appliances or other devices used in everyday life. AC power is characterized by its frequency, which is measured in hertz (Hz). In the United States, the frequency of AC power is 60 Hz and in Europe, it is generally 50 Hz.

AC is used in a variety of applications, ranging from motors and generators to lighting and other household appliances. AC power supply provides efficient, reliable, and safe power distribution for industrial applications and consumer electronics.

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